Glossary of Nutritional Terms
Amino acids are small, highly reactive molecules composed of 20 to 30 HCNO atoms. When amino acids link together in strings they form proteins. Proteins govern chemical reaction rates and form the structural material for cell parts.
Much research has recently focused on how antioxidant (an"tih-OK'sih-dant) vitamins may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Antioxidant vitamins -- E, C and beta carotene (a form of vitamin A) -- have potential health-promoting properties. Though the data are incomplete, up to 30 percent of Americans are taking some form of antioxidant supplement.
Sitosterol is a potent substance found naturally in many vegetables. It is
also sometimes referred to as phytosterol. The "ol" in
sitosterol means it is an alcohol compound of plants and vegetables. Beta
Sitosterol is a nutrient that has a wide range of health benefits. Most
notably, clinical studies show that it exerts a powerful influence on male
prostate health. Most men with prostate issues have heard of the herb
Saw Palmetto as a prostate supplement, but almost none have heard of Beta
helping maintain the health of the prostate and helping to alleviate the
symtpoms of BPH (Enlarged Prostate Gland), Beta Sitosterol has other
potential health benefits: studies show it may help with high
cholesterol and high triglycerides. Both of these are primary culprits
in heart disease, and, thus heart attacks.
Studies are also being performed at various major Universities to see whether Beta Sitosterol can boost the immune system, help with diabetes, and even prevent some types of cancers. Many of the initial results are promising, but a lot more studies will need to be conducted to say whether or not these projections are overly optimistic, or will bear out. (see phytosterols)
Carotenoids are a class of natural fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria, where they play a critical role in the photosynthetic process. They also occur in some non-photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts, and molds, where they may carry out a protective function against damage by light and oxygen. Although animals appear to be incapable of synthesizing carotenoids, many animals incorporate carotenoids from their diet. Within animals, carotenoids provide bright coloration, serve as antioxidants, and can be a source for vitamin A activity (Ong and Tee 1992; Britton et al. 1995).
Carotenoids are responsible for many of the red, orange, and yellow hues of plant leaves, fruits, and flowers, as well as the colors of some birds, insects, fish, and crustaceans. Some familiar examples of carotenoid coloration are the oranges of carrots and citrus fruits, the reds of peppers and tomatoes, and the pinks of flamingos and salmon (Pfander 1992). Some 600 different carotenoids are known to occur naturally (Ong and Tee 1992), and new carotenoids continue to be identified (Mercadante 1999).
is the main protein of connective tissue. It has great tensile strength,
and is the main component of ligaments and tendons. It is responsible for
skin elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany
aging. Collagen also fills out the cornea where it is present in
crystalline form. Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals.
Functional cosmetic products which produce physiological changes in appearance, feature improvement of function, and offer specific therapeutic benefits for skin and hair.
Cytokines are small secreted proteins which mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They must be produced de novo in response to an immune stimulus. They generally (although not always) act over short distances and short time spans and at very low concentration. They act by binding to specific membrane receptors, which then signal the cell via second messengers, often tyrosine kinases, to alter its behavior (gene expression). Responses to cytokines include increasing or decreasing expression of membrane proteins (including cytokine receptors), proliferation, and secretion of effector molecules.
The largest group of cytokines stimulates immune cell proliferation and differentiation. This group includes Interleukin 1 (IL-1), which activates T cells; IL-2, which stimulates proliferation of antigen-activated T and B cells; IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, which stimulate proliferation and differentiation of B cells; Interferon gamma (IFNg), which activates macrophages; and IL-3, IL-7 and Granulocyte Monocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), which stimulate hematopoiesis.
Ellagic acid is a powerful antioxidant, polyphenol. Human research reveals that the body readily absorbs ellagic acid leading to inhibition of abnormal division of cells and promoting the normal death of healthy cells. Ellagic acid has been clinically shown to cause apoptosis (cell death) in certain cancer cells and has exhibited anti-carcinogenic effects against a wide range of carcinogens in several tissues. Ellagic acid contributes to significant inhibition of colon, esophageal, liver, lung, tongue, and skin cancers. The interaction of ellagic acid and quercetin demonstrated an enhanced anticarcinogenic potential of polyphenol combinations, which was not based solely on the additive effect of individual compounds, but rather on synergistic biochemical interactions.
Ellagic Acid and Quercentin are found together in Seabuckthorn Tea, along with other powerful anti-oxidants like Ve, Beta Carotene, catechins, other flavonoids!
does Ellagic Acid work?
Healthy cells have a normal life cycle of approximately 120 days before they die. This process is called apoptosis (natural cell death). The body replaces these dying cells with healthy cells. Conversely, cancer cells do not die. They multiply by division, making 2 cancer cells, then 4, 8, 16, 32 and so on. In lab tests, Ellagic Acid caused the cancer cells to go through the normal apoptosis process without damaging healthy cells. Chemotherapy, radiation, and most conventional treatments cause the death of cancer cells and healthy cells indiscriminately, possibly destroying the immune system in the process. Ellagic Acid is clearly the sensible choice.
our body's structural protein
that gives elasticity to our tissues and organs. Elastin is found
predominantly in the walls of our arteries, in our lungs, intestines, and
skin, as well as in other elastic tissues. It functions in connective
tissue in partnership with collagen. Whereas collagen provides rigidity,
elastin is the protein which allows the connective tissues in our blood
vessels and heart tissues, for example, to stretch and then recoil to
their original positions.
elastin within the body's connective tissue to act like a bunch of rubber
bands that are tied together at a number of places. When the elastic bands
are pulled, they will stretch, and when there is no longer a pull, they
will return to their original relaxed state. You can't pull the elastin
chain too far because the companion stiff collagen fibers in the
connective tissue limit the stretching of the elastin fibers in the
tissue covers the whole surface of the body. It is made up of cells
closely packed and ranged in one or more layers. This tissue is
specialised to form the covering or lining of all internal and external
body surfaces. Epithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces on the interior
of the body is known as endothelium. Epithelial cells are packed tightly
together, with almost no intercellular spaces and only a small amount of
intercellular substance. Epithelial tissue, regardless of the type, is
usually separated from the underlying tissue by a thin sheet of connective
tissue; basement membrane. The basement membrane provides structural
support for the epithelium and also binds it to neighbouring structures.
human history mankind has ingested an approximate equal proportion (1/1
ratio) of Omega-6 to Omega-3 fatty acids. The Omegas 6 and 3 are two of
forty-nine known essential nutrients. As essential nutrients they cannot
be synthesized by the body, but must be ingested directly in foods or in
the form of dietary supplements. The relationship of equivalence between
the two Omegas is critical because they self-check each other in a
delicate balance to regulate thousands of metabolic functions through
prostaglandin pathways. Nearly every biologic function is
somehow interconnected with the delicate balance between Omega-6 and
(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a ubiquitous phenolic acid in the
plant kingdom. It is mainly conjugated with mono- and oligosaccharides,
polyamines, lipids and polysaccharides and seldom occurs in a free state
in plants. Ferulic acid is a phenolic acid of low toxicity; it can be
absorbed and easily metabolized in the human body. Ferulic acid has been
reported to have many physiological functions, including antioxidant,
antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombosis, and anti-cancer
activities. It also protects against coronary disease, lowers cholesterol
and increases sperm viability. Because of these properties and its low
toxicity, ferulic acid is now widely used in the food and cosmetic
industries. It is used as the raw material for the production of vanillin
and preservatives, as a cross-linking agent for the preparation of food
gels and edible films, and as an ingredient in sports foods and skin
protection agents. Ferulic Acid is present in Seabuckthorn Tea
of a group of organic compounds that occur as pigments in fruit and
flowers [ETYMOLOGY: 20th Century: from flavone
+ -oid] Flavonoids are compounds with varied chemical structures present in fruits,
vegetables, nuts and seeds. The major flavonoid categories are flavonols
(FLAV'oh-nolz), flavones (FLAV'onz), catechins (KAT'eh-kinz),
flavanones (FLAV'ah-nonz) and anthocyanins (an"tho-SI'ah-ninz).
The main dietary sources of these compounds are tea, onions, soy and wine.
The main flavonoid in onions is quercetin glucoside (KER'seh-tin
GLU'ko-s?d) and the main flavonoid in tea is quercetin rutinoside
(KER'seh-tin roo-TIN'o-syd. Other flavonoids in seabuckthorn are kaempherol
A highly chemically reactive atom, molecule or molecular fragment with a free or unpaired electron. Free radicals are produced in many different ways such as, normal metabolic processes, ultraviolet radiation from the sun, nuclear radiation and the breakdown in the body of spoiled fats. Free radicals have been implicated in aging, cancer, cardiovascular disease and other kinds of damage to the body, (see antioxidants).
cascade of chemical reactions that occurs when a free radical reacts with
another molecule in order to gain an electron. The molecule that loses an
electron to the free radical then becomes a free radical, repeating the
process until the energy of the free radical is spent, or the reaction is
stopped by an antioxidant. In biological systems, this cascade can damage
important molecules like DNA.
skin lining all animal body cavities and canals that come into contact
with the air (for example, eyelids, breathing and digestive passages,
genital tract). It contains goblet cells that secrete mucus, a moistening,
lubricating, and protective fluid. In the air passages mucus captures dust
and bacteria. In the gut it helps food slip along, and protects the
epithelial cells from being damaged by digestive enzymes. Mucous membranes
line the air passages from the mouth
to the lungs
and to the gut.
The layer of cells next to the space in the tubes is an epithelium. In the
air passages many of these cells have hair-like projections called cilia
and the epithelium is then called a ciliated epithelium.
broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are
insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents. The definition
excludes the mineral oils and other petroleum products obtained from
fossil material. Major classes of lipids include the fatty acids, the
glycerol-derived lipids (including the fats and oils and the phospholipids),
the sphingosine-derived lipids (including the ceramides, cerebrosides,
gangliosides, and sphingomyelins), the steroids and their derivatives, the
terpenes and their derivatives, certain aromatic compounds, and long-chain
alcohols and waxes. In living organisms lipids serve as the basis of cell
membranes and as a form of fuel storage. Often lipids are found conjugated
with proteins or carbohydrates, and the resulting substances are known as
lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides. The fat-soluble vitamins can be
classified as lipids. Liposomes are spherical vesicles formed by mixing
lipids with water or water solutions. They have found applications in the
oral administration of some drugs (e.g., insulin and some cancer drugs),
since they retain their integrity until they are broken down by the
lipases in the stomach and small intestine.